東京薬科大学 生命科学部 応用生命科学科 応用生態学研究室

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    2017
  • Wang H-W, Makino Y, Inoue J, Maejima K, Funayama-Noguchi S, Yamada T, Noguchi K (2017) Influence of modified atmosphere on induction and activity of respiratory enzymes in broccoli florets during the early stage of postharvest storage. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 65, 8538-8543.[abstract]
  • Yoshitake Y, Sato R, Madoka Y, Ikeda K, Murakawa M, Suruga K, Sugiura D, Noguchi K, Ohta H, Shimojima M (2017) Arabidopsis phosphatidic acid phosphohydrolases are essential for growth under nitrogen-depleted conditions. Frontiers in Plant Science, in press.[abstract]

  • 2016
  • Florez-Sarasa I, Noguchi K, Araujo WL, Garcia-Nogales A, Fernie AR, Flexas J, Ribas-Carbo M (2016) Impaired cyclic electron flow around Photosystem I disturbs high-light respiratory metabolism. Plant Physiology, 172, 2176-2189.[abstract]
  • Hikosaka K, Noguchi K, Terashima I (2016) Modeling leaf gas exchange. In: (K Hikosaka, U Niinemets, NPR Anten eds), Canopy Photosynthesis: From Basics to Applications, Advances in Photosynthesis and Respiration Vol. 42. pp. 61-100, Springer, Dordrecht.[abstract]
  • Ishikawa N, Takabayashi A, Noguchi K, Tazoe Y, Yamamoto H, von Caemmerer S, Sato F, Endo T (2016) NDH-mediated cyclic electron flow around photosystem I is crucial for C4 photosynthesis. Plant and Cell Physiology, 57, 2020-2028.[abstract]
  • Uesono Y, Toh-e A, Kikuchi Y, Araki T, Hachiya T, Watanabe CK, Noguchi K, Terashima I (2016) Local anesthetics and antipsychotic phenothiazines interact nonspecifically with membranes and inhibit hexose transporters in yeast. Genetics, 202, 997-1012.[abstract]
  • Watanabe CKA, Yamori W, Takahashi S, Terashima I, Noguchi K (2016) Mitochondrial alternative pathway-associated photoprotection of photosystem II is related to the photorespiratory pathway. Plant and Cell Physiology, 57, 1426-1431.[abstract]
  • 野口 航 (2016)「植物学の百科事典」(日本植物学会編), 丸善出版(分担執筆)

  • 2015
  • Araki T, Toh-e A, Kikuchi Y, Watanabe CK, Hachiya T, Noguchi K, Terashima I, Uesono Y (2015) Tetracaine, a local anesthetic, preferentially induces translational inhibition with processing body formation rather than phosphorylation of eIF2 in yeast. Current Genetics, 61, 43-53.[abstract]
  • Funayama-Noguchi S, Noguchi K, Terashima I (2015) Comparison of the response to phosphorus deficiency in two lupin species, Lupinus albus and L. angustifolius, with contrasting root morphology. Plant, Cell and Environment, 38, 399-410.[abstract]
  • Iwai M, Yokono M, Kono M, Noguchi K, Akimoto S, Nakano A (2015) Light-harvesting complex Lhcb9 confers a green alga-type photosystem I supercomplex to the moss Physcomitrella patens. Nature Plants, 1, 14008.[abstract]
  • Mizokami Y, Noguchi K, Kojima M, Sakakibara H, Terashima I (2015) Mesophyll conductance decreases in the wild type but not in an ABA deficient mutant (aba1) of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia under drought conditions. Plant, Cell and Environment, 38, 388-398.[abstract]
  • Noguchi K, Watanabe CK, Terashima I (2015) Effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 on primary metabolite levels in Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0 leaves: An examination of metabolome data. Plant and Cell Physiology, 56, 2069-2078.[abstract]
  • Noguchi K, Yamori W, Hikosaka K, Terashima I (2015) Homeostasis of the temperature sensitivity of respiration over a range of growth temperatures indicated by a modified Arrhenius model. New Phytologist, 207, 34-42.[abstract]

  • 2014
  • Hachiya T, Sugiura D, Kojima M, Sato S, Yanagisawa S, Sakakibara H, Terashima I, Noguchi K (2014) High CO2 triggers preferential root growth of Arabidopsis thaliana via two distinct systems at low pH and low N stresses. Plant and Cell Physiology, 55, 269-280.[full text]
  • Kono M, Noguchi K, Terashima (2014) Roles of the cyclic electron flow around PSI (CEF-PSI) and O2-dependent alternative pathways in regulation of the photosynthetic electron flow in short-term fluctuating light in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant and Cell Physiology, 55, 990-1004.[abstract]
  • Wang Y, Noguchi K, Ono N, Inoue S, Terashima I, Kinoshita T (2014) Overexpression of plasma membrane H+-ATPase in guard cells promotes light-induced stomatal opening and enhances plant growth. Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 111, 533-538.[abstract]
  • Watanabe CK, Sato S, Yanagisawa S, Uesono Y, Terashima I, Noguchi K (2014) Effects of elevated CO2 on levels of primary metabolites and transcripts of genes encoding respiratory enzymes and their diurnal patterns in Arabidopsis thaliana: Possible relationships with respiratory rates. Plant and Cell Physiology, 55, 341-347.[full text]
  • 伊藤昭彦,野口航(2014)植物の呼吸と地球環境変動:モデルの観点から 光合成研究 24: 39-45.[full text]

  • 2013
  • Fujita T, Noguchi K, Terashima I (2013) Apoplastic mesophyll signals induce rapid stomatal responses to CO2 in Commelina communis. New Phytologist, 199, 395-406.[abstract]
  • Kobayashi K, Sasaki D, Noguchi K, Fujinuma D, Komatsu H, Kobayashi M, Sato M, Toyooka K, Sugimoto K, Niyogi KK, Wada H, Masuda T (2013) Photosynthesis of root chloroplasts developed in Arabidopsis lines overexpressing GOLDEN2-LIKE transcription factors. Plant and Cell Physiology, 54, 1365-1377.[abstract]
  • Nakamura M, Nakamura T, Tsuchiya T, Noguchi K (2013) Functional linkage between N acquisition strategies and aeration capacities of hydrophytes for efficient oxygen consumption in roots. Physiologia Plantarum, 147, 135-146.[abstract]
  • Yoshida K, Noguchi K, Motohashi K, Hisabori T (2013) Systematic exploration of thioredoxin target proteins in plant mitochondria. Plant and Cell Physiology, 54, 875-892.[abstract]
  • 溝上祐介,小嶋美紀子,榊原 均,野口 航,寺島一郎(2013)葉肉コンダクタンス低下へのABAの関与 光合成研究 23: 4-7.[full text]

  • 2012
  • Hachiya T, Watanabe C, Fujimoto M, Ishikawa T, Takahara K, Kawai-Yamada M, Uchimiya H, Uesono Y, Terashima I, Noguchi K (2012) Nitrate addition alleviates ammonium toxicity without lessening ammonium accumulation, organic acid depletion and inorganic cation depletion in Arabidopsis thaliana shoots. Plant and Cell Physiology, 53, 577-591.[abstract]
  • Miyata K, Noguchi K, Terashima I (2012) Cost and benefit of the repair of photodamaged photosystem II in spinach leaves: Roles of acclimation to growth light. Photosynthesis Research, 113, 165-180.[abstract]
  • Okajima Y, Taneda H, Noguchi K, Terashima I (2012) Optimum leaf size predicted by the leaf energy balance model incorporating dependencies of photosynthesis to light and temperature. Ecological Research, 27, 333-346.[abstract]
  • Toda T, Fujii S, Noguchi K, Kazama T, Toriyama K (2012) Rice MPR25 encodes a pentatricopeptide repeat protein and is essential for RNA editing of nad5 transcripts in mitochondria. Plant Journal, 72, 450-460.[abstract]

  • 2011
  • Funayama-Noguchi S, Noguchi K, Yoshida C, Kawaguchi M (2011) Two CLE genes are induced by phosphate in roots of Lotus japonicus. Journal of Plant Research, 124, 155-163.[abstract]
  • Hachiya T, Mizokami Y, Miyata K, Tholen D, Watanabe CK, Noguchi K (2011) Evidence for a nitrate-independent function of the nitrate sensor NRT1.1 in Arabidopsis thaliana. Journal of Plant Research, 124, 425-430.[abstract]
  • Hachiya T, Noguchi K (2011) Integrative response of plant mitochondrial electron transport chain to nitrogen source. Plant Cell Reports, 30: 195-204.[abstract]
  • Hachiya T, Noguchi K (2011) Mutation of NRT1.1 enhances ammonium/low pH-tolerance in Arabiopsis thaliana. Plant Signaling and Behavior, 6, 706-708.[abstract]
  • Oitate H, Noguchi K, Sone K, Terashima I, Suzuki AA (2011) Patterns of photoassimilate translocation to reproductive shoots from adjacent shoots in Camellia sasanqua by manipulation of sink-source balance between the shoots. Journal of Plant Research, 124, 131-136.[abstract]
  • Wang Y, Noguchi K, Terashima I (2011) Photosynthesis-dependent and -independent responses of stomata to blue, red and green monochromatic light: Differences between the normally oriented and inverted leaves of sunflower. Plant and Cell Physiology, 52, 479-489.[abstract]
  • Yoshida K, Terashima I, Noguchi K (2011) How and why does mitochondrial respiratory chain respond to light? Plant Signaling and Behavior, 6, 864-866.[abstract]
  • Yoshida, K, Watanabe CK, Hachiya T, Tholen D, Shibata M, Terashima I, Noguchi K (2011) Distinct responses of the mitochondrial respiratory chain to long- and short-term high light environments in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant, Cell and Environment, 34, 618-628.
  • [abstract]
  • Yoshida K, Watanabe CK, Terashima I, Noguchi K (2011) Physiological impact of mitochondrial alternative oxidase on photosynthesis and growth in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant, Cell and Environment, 34, 1890-1899.[abstract]


  • 2010
  • Araya T, Noguchi K, Terashima I (2010) Effect of nitrogen nutrition on the carbohydrate repression of photosynthesis in leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris L.. Journal of Plant Research, 123, 371-379.[abstract]
  • Hachiya T, Watanabe CK, Boom C, Tholen D, Takahara K, Kawai-Yamada M, Uchimiya H, Uesono Y, Terashima I, Noguchi K (2010) Ammonium-dependent respiratory increase is dependent on the cytochrome pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana shoots. Plant, Cell and Environment, 33, 1888-1897.[abstract]
  • Watanabe CK, Hachiya T, Takahara K, Kawai-Yamada M, Uchimiya H, Uesono Y, Terashima I, Noguchi K (2010) Effects of AOX1a deficiency on plant growth, gene expression of respiratory components, and metabolic profile under low nitrogen stress in Arabidopsis thaliana plants. Plant and Cell Physiology, 51, 810-822.[abstract]
  • Yamori W, Noguchi K, Hikosaka K, Terashima I (2010) Phenotypic plasticity in photosynthetic temperature acclimation among crop species with different cold tolerances. Plant Physiology, 152, 388-399.[abstract]
  • Yoshida K, Noguchi K (2010) Interaction between chloroplasts and mitochondria: Activity, function, and regulation of the mitochondrial respiratory system during photosynthesis. In: (F Kempken ed), Plant Mitochondria, Advances in Plant Biology 1. pp. 383-409, Springer, Berlin.[abstract]
  • Yoshida K, Shibata M, Terashima I, Noguchi K (2010) Simultaneous determination of in vivo plastoquinone and ubiquinone redox states by HPLC-based analysis. Plant and Cell Physiology, 51, 836-841.[abstract]

  • 2009
  • Sone K, Suzuki AA, Miyazawa S-I, Noguchi K, Terashima I (2009) Maintenance mechanisms of the pipe model relationship and Leonardo da Vinci's rule in the branching architecture of Acer rufinerve tree. Journal of Plant Research, 122, 41-52.[abstract]
  • Yamori W, Noguchi K, Hikosaka K, Terashima I (2009) Cold tolerant crop species have greater temperature homeostasis of leaf respiration and photosynthesis than cold sensitive species. Plant and Cell Physiology, 50, 203-215.[abstract]
  • Yoshida K, Noguchi K (2009) Differential gene expression profiles of the mitochondrial respiratory components in illuminated Arabidopsis leaves. Plant and Cell Physiology, 50, 1449-1462.[abstract]
  • 野口 航 (2009) 光照射下の葉の呼吸系の働き 光合成研究 19: 59-65.[PDF]

  • 2008
  • Araya T, Noguchi K, Terashima I (2008) Manipulation of light and CO2 environments of the primary leaves of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) affects photosynthesis in both the primary and the first trifoliate leaves: Involvement of systemic regulation. Plant, Cell and Environment, 31, 50-61.[abstract]
  • Hachiya T, Noguchi K (2008) Effect of growth temperature and total non-structural carbohydrate accumulation on growth coefficient in Petunia x hybrida petal. Physiologia Plantarum, 134, 293-302.[abstract]
  • Noguchi K, Yoshida K (2008) Interaction between photosynthesis and respiration in illuminated leaves. Mitochondrion, 8: 87-99.[abstract]
  • Tazoe Y, Hanba YT, Furumoto T, Noguchi K, Terashima I (2008) Relationships between quantum yield for CO2 assimilation, activity of key enzymes and CO2 leakiness in Amaranthus cruentus, a C4 dicot, grown in high or low light. Plant and Cell Physiology, 49, 19-29.[abstract]
  • Tholen D, Boom C, Noguchi K, Ueda S, Katase T, Terashima I (2008) The chloroplast avoidance response decreases internal conductance to CO2 diffusion in Arabidopsis thaliana leaves. Plant, Cell and Environment, 31, 1688-1700.[abstract]
  • Wang Y, Noguchi K, Terashima I (2008) Distinct light response of the adaxial and abaxial stomata in intact leaves of Helianthus annuus L. Plant, Cell and Environment,31, 1307-1316.[abstract]
  • Watanabe CK, Hachiya T, Terashima I, Noguchi K (2008) The lack of alternative oxidase at low temperature leads to a disruption of the balance in carbon and nitrogen metabolism, and to an up-regulation of antioxidant defense systems in Arabidopsis thaliana leaves. Plant, Cell and Environment, (31, 1190-1202.[abstract]
  • Yamori W, Noguchi K, Kashino Y, Terashima I (2008) The role of the electron transport in determining the temperature dependence of photosynthetic rate in spinach leaves grown at contrasting temperatures. Plant and Cell Physiology, 49, 583-591.[abstract]
  • Yoshida K, Watanabe C, Kato Y, Sakamoto W, Noguchi K (2008) Influence of chloroplastic photo-oxidative stress on mitochondrial alternative oxidase capacity and respiratory properties: a case study with Arabidopsis yellow variegated 2. Plant and Cell Physiology, 49, 592-603.[abstract]
  • 野口 航 (2008)「光合成研究法」(北海道大学低温化学研究所・日本光合成研究会 共編), 低温科学第67巻(分担執筆)[download]
  • 野口 航 (2008) 在来植物種は侵入種に比べて資源の乏しい環境では有利なのか? 遺伝 62: 6-7.(論文紹介)

  • 2007
  • Hachiya T, Terashima I, Noguchi K (2007) Increase in respiratory cost at high growth temperature is attributed to high protein turnover cost in Petunia x hybrida petal. Plant, Cell and Environment, 30, 1269-1283.[abstract]
  • Sugimoto H, Kusumi K, Noguchi K, Yano M, Yoshimura A, Iba K (2007) The rice nuclear gene, VIRESCENT 2, is essential for chloroplast development and encodes a novel type of guanylate kinase targeted to plastids and mitochondria. Plant Journal, 52, 512-527.[abstract]
  • Vyas P, Bisht MS, Miyazawa S-I, Yano S, Noguchi K, Terashima I, Funayama-Noguchi S (2007) Effects of polyploidy on photosynthetic properties and anatomy in leaves of Phlox drummondii. Functional Plant Biology, 34, 673-682.[abstract]
  • Yoshida K, Terashima I, Noguchi K (2007) Up-regulation of mitochondrial alternative oxidase concomitant with chloroplast over-reduction by excess light. Plant and Cell Physiology, 48, 606-614.[abstract]

  • 2006
  • Araya T, Noguchi K, Terashima I (2006) Effects of carbohydrate accumulation on photosynthesis differ between sink and source leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris L. Plant and Cell Physiology, 47, 644-652.[abstract]
  • Noguchi K, Terashima I (2006) Responses of spinach leaf mitochondria to low N availability. Plant, Cell and Environment, 29: 710-719.[abstract]
  • Sone K, Noguchi K, Terashima I (2006) Mechanical and ecophysiological significance of young Acer tree design: vertical differences in mechanical properties and xylem anatomy of branches. Tree Physiology, 26, 1549-1558.[abstract]
  • Tazoe Y, Noguchi K, Terashima I (2006) Effects of growth light and nitrogen nutrition on the organization of the photosynthetic apparatus in leaves of a C4 plant, Amaranthus cruentus. Plant, Cell and Environment, 29, 691-700.[abstract]
  • Yamori W, Suzuki K, Noguchi K, Nakai M, Terashima I (2006) Effects of Rubisco kinetics and Rubisco activation state on the temperature dependence of the photosynthetic rate in spinach leaves from contrasting growth temperature. Plant, Cell and Environment, 29, 1659-1670.[abstract]
  • Yamori W, Noguchi K, Hanba YT, Terashima I (2006) Effects of internal conductance on the temperature dependence of the photosynthetic rate in spinach leaves from contrasting growth temperatures. Plant and Cell Physiology, 47, 1069-1080.[abstract]
  • Yoshida K, Terashima I, Noguchi K (2006) Distinct roles of the cytochrome pathway and alternative oxidase in leaf photosynthesis. Plant and Cell Physiology, 47, 22-31.[abstract]

  • 2005
  • Noguchi K (2005) Effects of light intensity and carbohydrate status on leaf and root respiration. In: (Lambers. H. and Ribas-Carbo, M. eds) Plant Respiration: From Cell to Ecosystem. pp. 63-83, Springer, Dordrecht.[abstract]
  • Noguchi K, Taylor NL, Millar AH, Lambers H, Day DA (2005) Response of mitochondria to light intensity in the leaves of sun and shade species. Plant, Cell and Environment, 28, 760-771.[abstract]
  • Sone K, Noguchi K, Terashima I (2005) Dependency of branch diameter growth in young Acer trees on light intensity and shoot elongation. Tree Physiology, 25, 39-48.[abstract]
  • Yamori W, Noguchi K, Terashima I (2005) Temperature acclimation of photosynthesis in spinach leaves: Analyses of photosynthetic components and temperature dependences of photosynthetic partial reactions. Plant, Cell and Environment, 28, 536-547.[abstract]
  • 野口 航 (2005) 低窒素環境に対する葉の呼吸系の応答 ーシアン耐性呼吸経路AOXは葉のC/Nバランスを維持するのに役立っているのかー 蛋白質核酸酵素 別冊「二層膜オルガネラの遺伝学」 林 純一・杉山 康雄・坂本 亘・田中 寛・正木 春彦 編, 50: 1885-1886, 共立出版

  • 2004
  • Kurimoto K, Millar AH, Day DA, Lambers H, Noguchi K (2004) Maintenance of growth rate at low temperature in rice and wheat cultivars with a high degree of respiratory homeostasis is associated with a high efficiency of respiratory ATP production. Plant and Cell Physiology, 45, 1015-1022.[abstract]
  • Kurimoto K., Day DA, Lambers H, Noguchi K (2004) Effect of respiratory homeostasis on plant growth in cultivars of wheat and rice. Plant, Cell and Environment, 27, 853-862.[abstract]
  • 野口 航 (2004) クワズイモの葉の呼吸電子伝達系 −観葉植物が薄暗い室内でも効率よく生育できる仕組み− 化学と生物 42: 356-359.
  • 野口 航 (2004)「植物生態生理学」(佐伯 敏郎、舘野 正樹 編 "Plant Physiological Ecology, Larcher, W.), Springer-Verlag東京(分担翻訳)

  • 2003
  • 野口 航 (2003) AOXの生理生態学的研究の現状と重要性 日本生態学会誌 53: 71-75.[abstract]
  • 野口 航 (2003)「光合成事典」(高宮 健一郎、池上 勇、太田 啓之、小野 高明、田中 歩、寺島 一郎 編), 学会出版センター(分担執筆)

  • 2002
  • Terashima I, Kimura K, Sone K, Noguchi K, Ishida A, Uemura A, Matsumoto Y (2002) Differential analysis of the effects of the light environment of deciduous trees: basic studies for tree growth modeling. In: (Nakashizuka, T. and Matsumoto, Y. eds) Diversity and interaction in a temperature forest community: Ogawa forest reserve of Japan, Ecological Studies, Vol. 158, pp. 187-200, Springer-Verlag, Japan.[abstract]

  • 2001
  • Noguchi K, Nakajima N, Terashima I (2001) Acclimation of leaf respiratory properties in Alocasia odora following reciprocal transfers of plants between high- and low-light environments. Plant, Cell and Environment, 24, 831-840.[abstract]
  • Noguchi K, Go C-S, Miyazawa S-I, Terashima I, Ueda S, Yoshinari T (2001) Costs of protein turnover and carbohydrate export in leaves of sun and shade species. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology, 28, 37-47.[abstract]
  • Noguchi K, Go C-S, Terashima I, Ueda S, Yoshinari T (2001) Activities of the cyanide-resistant respiratory pathway in leaves of sun and shade species. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology, 28, 27-35.[abstract]
  • 野口 航 (2001) 環境応答のコスト 植物生理学シリーズ「環境応答」 寺島 一郎 編 pp.195-206, 朝倉書店

  • 1999
  • 野口 航 (1999) 夜の葉の呼吸に関する生理学と経済学 植物細胞工学 別冊「環境応答 −植物の生存戦略とその分子機構−」 渡邊 昭、篠崎 一雄、寺島 一郎 編 pp.125-128, 秀潤社

  • 1998
  • Terashima I, Noguchi K, Itoh-Nemoto T, Park Y-M, Kubo A, Tanaka K (1998) The cause of PS I photoinhibition at low temperatures in leaves of Cucumis sativus L., a chilling sensitive plant. Physiologia Plantarum 103, 295-303.[abstract]

  • 1997
  • Noguchi K, Terashima I (1997) Different regulation of leaf respiration between Spinacia oleracea, a sun species, and Alocasia odora, a shade species. Physiologia Plantarum, 101, 1-7.[abstract]

  • 1996
  • Noguchi K, Sonoike K, Terashima I (1996) Acclimation of respiratory properties of leaves of Spinacia oleracea L., a sun species, and of Alocasia macrorrhiza (L.) G. Don., a shade species, to changes in growth irradiance. Plant and Cell Physiology, 37, 377-384.[abstract]

  • Proceedings
  • Yoshida K, Terashima I, Noguchi K (2008) Functional analysis of mitochondrial respiratory chain as a dissipation system of excess light energy. In: (J.F. Allen, E. Gantt, J.H. Golbeck & B. Osmond eds.), Photosynthesis. Energy from the Sun: 14th International Congress on Photosynthesis, pp. 1079-1082. Springer, Berlin.
  • Araya T, Noguchi K, Terashima I (2005) The difference between sink and source leaves in carbohydrate repression of photosynthesis in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). In Photosynthesis: Fundamental Aspects to Global Perspectives (van der Est, A. and Bruce, D. eds), pp. 660-662, Alliance Communications Group, Lawrence.
  • Tazoe Y, Noguchi K, Terashima I (2005) Effects of growth light conditions on the organization of the photosynthetic apparatus in the C4 plant leaves. In Photosynthesis: Fundamental Aspects to Global Perspectives (van der Est, A. and Bruce, D. eds), pp. 947-949, Alliance Communications Group, Lawrence.
  • Yamori W, Asakura Y, Nakai M, Noguchi K, Terashima I (2005) Mechanisms of temperature acclimation for photosynthesis in spinach leaves. In Photosynthesis: Fundamental Aspects to Global Perspectives (van der Est, A. and Bruce, D. eds), pp. 621-624, Alliance Communications Group, Lawrence.
  • Yoshida K, Noguchi K, Terashima I (2005) Responses of photosynthesis in Vicia fava leaves to respiratory inhibitors. In Photosynthesis: Fundamental Aspects to Global Perspectives (van der Est, A. and Bruce, D. eds), pp. 911-913, Alliance Communications Group, Lawrence.